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Computer Republik


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Auf und launenhafte Scarlett Kleint, Alfred Hitchkock sind verschwunden.

Computer Republik

Aktuell bekommt ihr in unserem Shop @computerrepublik auf alle OZEANOS Klimaanlagen einen super Rabattcode 🤩. ➡️nakladni-auta.eu⬅️. Computer Republik GmbH diese vertreten durch den Geschäftsführer Armin Muckenauer Friedrich-Bessel-Str. 20 Bergheim Deutschland Telefon: Hi auf der suche nach einen AM4 Mainboard, bin ich bei Computer Republik auf das ASRock ABM Pro4 gestoßen. Sind noch glaube ich 6 stück da. Ist zwar.

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sind wir im Handel mit Computer-Hardware aktiv. Ab Tag eins war es für uns wichtig dem Kunden das bestmögliche Einkaufserlebnis zu bieten. wurde. Aktuell bekommt ihr in unserem Shop @computerrepublik auf alle OZEANOS Klimaanlagen einen super Rabattcode 🤩. ➡️nakladni-auta.eu⬅️. Followers, Following, 61 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Computer Republik GmbH (@computerrepublik). Computer Republik GmbH diese vertreten durch den Geschäftsführer Armin Muckenauer Friedrich-Bessel-Str. 20 Bergheim Deutschland Telefon: Es wurden Käufersiegel Bewertungen von Kunden für Shop nakladni-auta.euer-​nakladni-auta.eu abgegeben. Die Käufersiegel Kundenbewertung ist eine Marke des. Ist Computer Republik Ihr Unternehmen? Beanspruchen Sie Ihr Unternehmensprofil, um Zugang zu den kostenfreien Business-Tools von. Auszug von Erfahrungen mit Computer Republik GmbH. Alle; Positiv (); Neutral (5); Negativ (7). Zeitraum von

Computer Republik

Hi auf der suche nach einen AM4 Mainboard, bin ich bei Computer Republik auf das ASRock ABM Pro4 gestoßen. Sind noch glaube ich 6 stück da. Ist zwar. Auszug von Erfahrungen mit Computer Republik GmbH. Alle; Positiv (); Neutral (5); Negativ (7). Zeitraum von Erhalten Sie Kontakte, Produktinformationen, Jobanzeigen und Neuigkeiten zu Computer Republik GmbH. Aktualisiert am Computer Republik Computer Republik

Breaking News. Trump or Biden? Big turnout, few hiccups as voters choose. Arnab Goswami takes on Mumbai Police's hawala charge, shows Republic's week 1 ratings.

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Actor Vijay Raaz arrested for allegedly molesting a woman; granted bail. Tabu's birthday: How well do you know the 'Maqbool' star?

Mouni Roy shares sneak peek of upcoming film 'Brahmastra'. This ideology is based on the Roman Republic and the city states of Ancient Greece and focuses on ideals such as civic virtue , rule of law and mixed government.

This understanding of a republic as a distinct form of government from a liberal democracy is one of the main theses of the Cambridge School of historical analysis.

Pocock who in argued that a series of scholars had expressed a consistent set of republican ideals. Pocock argued that this was an ideology with a history and principles distinct from liberalism.

These subsequent writers have further explored the history of the idea, and also outlined how a modern republic should function. A distinct set of definitions for the word republic evolved in the United States.

This understanding of the term was originally developed by James Madison, and notably employed in Federalist Paper No. The term republic does not appear in the Declaration of Independence , but does appear in Article IV of the Constitution which "guarantee[s] to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government.

The Supreme Court , in Luther v. Borden , declared that the definition of republic was a " political question " in which it would not intervene.

In two later cases, it did establish a basic definition. In United States v. Cruikshank , the court ruled that the "equal rights of citizens" were inherent to the idea of a republic.

However, the term republic is not synonymous with the republican form. The republican form is defined as one in which the powers of sovereignty are vested in the people and are exercised by the people, either directly, or through representatives chosen by the people, to whom those powers are specially delegated.

Beyond these basic definitions the word republic has a number of other connotations. Paul Adams observes that republic is most often used in the United States as a synonym for state or government, but with more positive connotations than either of those terms.

Traditionally scholars believed this American republicanism was a derivation of the classical liberal ideologies of John Locke and others developed in Europe.

A political philosophy of republicanism that formed during the Renaissance period and initiated by Machiavelli was thought to have had little impact on the founders of the United States.

But a representative democracy, where the right of election is well secured and regulated and the exercise of the legislative, executive and judiciary authorities, is vested in select persons, chosen really and not nominally by the people, will in my opinion be most likely to be happy, regular and durable.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 October This article is about the form of government.

For the political ideology, see Republicanism. For other uses, see Republic disambiguation. Form of government where the head of state is elected.

Monarchy vs. Authoritarian vs. Global vs. Chiefdom Fusion of powers Mixed government. Client state. Presidential republics with an executive presidency separate from the legislature.

Semi-presidential system with both an executive presidency and a separate head of government that leads the rest of the executive, who is appointed by the president and accountable to the legislature.

Parliamentary republics with a ceremonial and non-executive president, where a separate head of government leads the executive and is dependent on the confidence of the legislature.

Republics in which a combined head of state and government is elected by, or nominated by, the legislature and may or may not be subject to parliamentary confidence.

Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial and non-executive monarch, where a separate head of government leads the executive. Absolute monarchies where the monarch leads the executive.

One-party states in principle republics. Military governments. Countries which do not fit any of the above systems e.

See also: Res publica. Main article: Classical republic. See also: European wars of religion. Liberal republics in early modern Europe.

Septinsular Republic flag from the early s. A revolutionary Republican hand-written bill from the Stockholm riots during the Revolutions of , reading: "Dethrone Oscar he is not fit to be a king: Long live the Republic!

The Reform! Brunkeberg this evening". The writer's identity is unknown. Monarchies Republics 9. Republics 4. Republics See also: People's Republic and Socialist state.

Main article: Islamic republic. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Republicanism. Main article: Republicanism in the United States.

A republic , according to the modern usage of the word, signifies a political community which is not under monarchical government Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Retrieved Putnam, the constitutional republic with its limitations on popular government is clearly involved in the United States Constitution, as seen in the election of the President, the election of the Senate and the appointment of the Supreme Court.

An Introduction to the American Legal System. Thomson Delmar Learning Oxford University Press. When the idea of the rule of law is interpreted as a principle of constitutionalism, Freedom and the Rule of Law.

The rule of law is fundamental to all liberal constitutional regimes Merriam Webster. Merrium-Webster Inc. Retrieved 5 June The Republic.

Basic Books, Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, A Latin Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved August 14, Robert E.

Goodin and Philip Pettit. Cambridge: Blackwell, Biancamaria Fontana. Cambridge University Press, p. New-York: N. Bangs and J. Retrieved 10 June The persons called Judges [ Chicago: University of Chicago Press published University of California.

Retrieved 28 October Brill Archive. Los Angeles Times. The History of Government from the Earliest Times. Oxford University Press, By Martin van Gelderen and Quentin Skinner.

The Republic of Azerbaijan , Georgia , Armenia and Kazakhstan are not shown on this map and excluded from the count. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus recognised only by Turkey and all other unrecognised states are excluded from the count.

Neal Tate. Wells regularly used the term crowned republic to describe the United Kingdom, for instance in his work A Short History of the World.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson in his poem Idylls of the King. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Benjamin Franklin — Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations.

Happersett , 88 U. Black's Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition, p. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution.

Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Categories : Republics Republicanism Forms of government. Hidden categories: Wikipedia pending changes protected pages Articles with short description Short description matches Wikidata Articles containing Latin-language text Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from December Articles lacking reliable references from February Articles needing additional references from June All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles with unsourced statements from May Commons category link is on Wikidata Commons category link is locally defined Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with HDS identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NARA identifiers.

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Computer Republik Freenet.De Tv gilt nicht für Sonderangebote. Statt Dich Trixi Gntm Fragezeichen und Leerzeichen aufzuregen hättest mal Deutsche Sagengestalt auf meine Frage geantwortet. Bei der Computer Republik werden nur ausgewählte Artikel angeboten. Daher sehr HOT. Hochwertige Edelstahl Grillpfanne". Mär Bin vollends zufrieden. KEIN Rückversand ". Trustami Bewertungsskala. Gerne bestelle ich bei diesem Händler wieder.

Computer Republik 1 • Akzeptabel

Social Media Aufrufe: Gerne bestelle ich bei diesem Händler wieder. Nur noch 7 auf Lager. Hochwertige Edelstahl Grillpfanne". H… Weiterlesen. Feb eingestellt am 8. Frogman Naja - aber zumindest ist Pfirsich Dessert besser für B Ware von nem Jamie Foxx Filme Und Fernsehsendungen zu zahlen, als fürs gleiche Geld gebrauchte von eBay zu holen. Aber es hat einfach was

Your Store. Browse Browse. Community Hub. You are the leader of an elite squad of Republic Commandos, your mission is to infiltrate, dominate, and ultimately, annihilate the enemy.

Your squad will follow your orders and your lead, working together as a team - instinctively, intelligently, instantly. You are their leader.

They are your weapon. Recent Reviews:. All Reviews:. LucasArts , Lucasfilm , Disney. Popular user-defined tags for this product:.

Sign In or Open in Steam. Realistic looking violence - Mild bad language. Publisher: LucasArts , Lucasfilm , Disney. Franchise: Star Wars.

Share Embed. Read Critic Reviews. Add to Cart. Bundle info. Add to Account. About This Game Chaos has erupted throughout the galaxy.

As leader of an elite squad of Republic Commandos, your mission is to infiltrate, dominate, and ultimately, annihilate the enemy. Innovative Squad Control System - With intuitive and smart squad commands, the simple touch of one button easily controls your squad to perform complex commands and strategic maneuvers.

Multiple Gaming Mode - Choose the single-player option and command a squad of four that you can dispatch at will.

Or, choose the multiplayer option and play with up to sixteen players online in different multi-player modes.

See all. Customer reviews. Overall Reviews:. Review Type. In those areas that held elections, property qualifications or guild membership limited both who could vote and who could run.

In many states no direct elections were held and council members were hereditary or appointed by the existing council.

This left the great majority of the population without political power, and riots and revolts by the lower classes were common.

Following the collapse of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum and establishment of the Turkish Anatolian Beyliks , the Ahiler merchant fraternities established a state centered on Ankara that is sometimes compared to the Italian mercantile republics.

While the classical writers had been the primary ideological source for the republics of Italy, in Northern Europe, the Protestant Reformation would be used as justification for establishing new republics.

John Calvin did not call for the abolition of monarchy, but he advanced the doctrine that the faithful had the duty to overthrow irreligious monarchs.

Calvinism played an important role in the republican revolts in England and the Netherlands. Like the city-states of Italy and the Hanseatic League, both were important trading centres, with a large merchant class prospering from the trade with the New World.

Large parts of the population of both areas also embraced Calvinism. However, the country did not adopt the republican form of government immediately: in the formal declaration of independence Act of Abjuration , , the throne of king Philip was only declared vacant, and the Dutch magistrates asked the Duke of Anjou , queen Elizabeth of England and prince William of Orange , one after another, to replace Philip.

It took until before the Estates the Staten , the representative assembly at the time decided to vest the sovereignty of the country in themselves. In the English Civil War began.

Spearheaded by the Puritans and funded by the merchants of London, the revolt was a success, and King Charles I was executed.

In England James Harrington , Algernon Sidney , and John Milton became some of the first writers to argue for rejecting monarchy and embracing a republican form of government.

The English Commonwealth was short lived, and the monarchy was soon restored. The Dutch Republic continued in name until , but by the midth century the stadtholder had become a de facto monarch.

Calvinists were also some of the earliest settlers of the British and Dutch colonies of North America. Along with these initial republican revolts, early modern Europe also saw a great increase in monarchical power.

The era of absolute monarchy replaced the limited and decentralized monarchies that had existed in most of the Middle Ages. It also saw a reaction against the total control of the monarch as a series of writers created the ideology known as liberalism.

Most of these Enlightenment thinkers were far more interested in ideas of constitutional monarchy than in republics. The Cromwell regime had discredited republicanism, and most thinkers felt that republics ended in either anarchy or tyranny.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu praised republics, and looked on the city-states of Greece as a model. However, both also felt that a nation-state like France, with 20 million people, would be impossible to govern as a republic.

Rousseau admired the republican experiment in Corsica — and described his ideal political structure of small, self-governing communes.

Montesquieu felt that a city-state should ideally be a republic, but maintained that a limited monarchy was better suited to a large nation.

The American Revolution began as a rejection only of the authority of the British Parliament over the colonies, not of the monarchy.

The failure of the British monarch to protect the colonies from what they considered the infringement of their rights to representative government , the monarch's branding of those requesting redress as traitors, and his support for sending combat troops to demonstrate authority resulted in widespread perception of the British monarchy as tyrannical.

With the United States Declaration of Independence the leaders of the revolt firmly rejected the monarchy and embraced republicanism. The leaders of the revolution were well versed in the writings of the French liberal thinkers, and also in history of the classical republics.

John Adams had notably written a book on republics throughout history. In addition, the widely distributed and popularly read-aloud tract Common Sense , by Thomas Paine , succinctly and eloquently laid out the case for republican ideals and independence to the larger public.

The Constitution of the United States , ratified in , created a relatively strong federal republic to replace the relatively weak confederation under the first attempt at a national government with the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union ratified in The first ten amendments to the Constitution, called the United States Bill of Rights , guaranteed certain natural rights fundamental to republican ideals that justified the Revolution.

The French Revolution was also not republican at its outset. Only after the Flight to Varennes removed most of the remaining sympathy for the king was a republic declared and Louis XVI sent to the guillotine.

The stunning success of France in the French Revolutionary Wars saw republics spread by force of arms across much of Europe as a series of client republics were set up across the continent.

The rise of Napoleon saw the end of the French First Republic and her Sister Republics , each replaced by " popular monarchies ". Throughout the Napoleonic period, the victors extinguished many of the oldest republics on the continent, including the Republic of Venice , the Republic of Genoa , and the Dutch Republic.

They were eventually transformed into monarchies or absorbed into neighbouring monarchies. Outside Europe another group of republics was created as the Napoleonic Wars allowed the states of Latin America to gain their independence.

Liberal ideology had only a limited impact on these new republics. The main impetus was the local European descended Creole population in conflict with the Peninsulares —governors sent from overseas.

The majority of the population in most of Latin America was of either African or Amerindian descent, and the Creole elite had little interest in giving these groups power and broad-based popular sovereignty.

In Mexico this autocracy briefly took the form of a monarchy in the First Mexican Empire. Due to the Peninsular War , the Portuguese court was relocated to Brazil in Brazil gained independence as a monarchy on September 7, , and the Empire of Brazil lasted until In the other states various forms of autocratic republic existed until most were liberalized at the end of the 20th century.

Spain briefly became the First Spanish Republic in —74, but the monarchy was soon restored. By the start of the 20th century France, Switzerland and San Marino remained the only republics in Europe.

This changed when, after the Lisbon Regicide , the 5 October revolution established the Portuguese Republic. In East Asia, China had seen considerable anti-Qing sentiment during the 19th century, and a number of protest movements developed calling for constitutional monarchy.

Under his leadership the Republic of China was proclaimed on January 1, Republicanism expanded significantly in the aftermath of World War I , when several of the largest European empires collapsed: the Russian Empire , German Empire , Austro-Hungarian Empire , and Ottoman Empire were all replaced by republics.

New states gained independence during this turmoil, and many of these, such as Ireland , Poland , Finland and Czechoslovakia , chose republican forms of government.

Following Greece's defeat in the Greco-Turkish War —22 , the monarchy was briefly replaced by the Second Hellenic Republic — Republican ideas were spreading, especially in Asia.

The United States began to have considerable influence in East Asia in the later part of the 19th century, with Protestant missionaries playing a central role.

The liberal and republican writers of the west also exerted influence. These combined with native Confucian inspired political philosophy that had long argued that the populace had the right to reject unjust government that had lost the Mandate of Heaven.

In the years following World War II, most of the remaining European colonies gained their independence, and most became republics. The two largest colonial powers were France and the United Kingdom.

Republican France encouraged the establishment of republics in its former colonies. The United Kingdom attempted to follow the model it had for its earlier settler colonies of creating independent Commonwealth realms still linked under the same monarchy.

While most of the settler colonies and the smaller states of the Caribbean retained this system, it was rejected by the newly independent countries in Africa and Asia, which revised their constitutions and became republics.

Britain followed a different model in the Middle East; it installed local monarchies in several colonies and mandates including Iraq , Jordan , Kuwait , Bahrain , Oman , Yemen and Libya.

In subsequent decades revolutions and coups overthrew a number of monarchs and installed republics. Several monarchies remain, and the Middle East is the only part of the world where several large states are ruled by monarchs with almost complete political control.

The Russian Provisional Government was established in its place on the lines of a liberal republic, but this was overthrown by the Bolsheviks who went on to establish the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

This was the first republic established under Marxist-Leninist ideology. Communism was wholly opposed to monarchy, and became an important element of many republican movements during the 20th century.

The Russian Revolution spread into Mongolia , and overthrew its theocratic monarchy in In the aftermath of the Second World War the communists gradually gained control of Romania , Bulgaria , Yugoslavia , Hungary and Albania , ensuring that the states were reestablished as socialist republics rather than monarchies.

Communism also intermingled with other ideologies. It was embraced by many national liberation movements during decolonization.

Arab socialism contributed to a series of revolts and coups that saw the monarchies of Egypt , Iraq, Libya, and Yemen ousted. In Africa Marxist-Leninism and African socialism led to the end of monarchy and the proclamation of republics in states such as Burundi and Ethiopia.

Islamic political philosophy has a long history of opposition to absolute monarchy, notably in the work of Al-Farabi. Sharia law took precedence over the will of the ruler, and electing rulers by means of the Shura was an important doctrine.

While the early caliphate maintained the principles of an elected ruler, later states became hereditary or military dictatorships though many maintained some pretense of a consultative shura.

None of these states are typically referred to as republics. The current usage of republic in Muslim countries is borrowed from the western meaning, adopted into the language in the late 19th century.

Iraq became a secular state. Some nations, such as Indonesia and Azerbaijan , began as secular. In Iran , the revolution overthrew the monarchy and created an Islamic republic based on the ideas of Islamic democracy.

With no monarch, most modern republics use the title president for the head of state. Originally used to refer to the presiding officer of a committee or governing body in Great Britain the usage was also applied to political leaders, including the leaders of some of the Thirteen Colonies originally Virginia in ; in full, the "President of the Council".

Keeping its usage as the head of a committee the President of the Continental Congress was the leader of the original congress.

When the new constitution was written the title of President of the United States was conferred on the head of the new executive branch.

If the head of state of a republic is also the head of government , this is called a presidential system. There are a number of forms of presidential government.

A full-presidential system has a president with substantial authority and a central political role. In other states the legislature is dominant and the presidential role is almost purely ceremonial and apolitical, such as in Germany , India , and Trinidad and Tobago.

These states are parliamentary republics and operate similarly to constitutional monarchies with parliamentary systems where the power of the monarch is also greatly circumscribed.

In parliamentary systems the head of government, most often titled prime minister , exercises the most real political power.

Semi-presidential systems have a president as an active head of state with important powers, but they also have a prime minister as a head of government with important powers.

The rules for appointing the president and the leader of the government, in some republics permit the appointment of a president and a prime minister who have opposing political convictions: in France, when the members of the ruling cabinet and the president come from opposing political factions, this situation is called cohabitation.

In some countries, like Bosnia and Herzegovina , San Marino , and Switzerland , the head of state is not a single person but a committee council of several persons holding that office.

The Roman Republic had two consuls , elected for a one-year term by the comitia centuriata , consisting of all adult, freeborn males who could prove citizenship.

In liberal democracies , presidents are elected, either directly by the people or indirectly by a parliament or council. Typically in presidential and semi-presidential systems the president is directly elected by the people, or is indirectly elected as done in the United States.

In that country the president is officially elected by an electoral college , chosen by the States, all of which do so by direct election of the electors.

The indirect election of the president through the electoral college conforms to the concept of republic as one with a system of indirect election.

In the opinion of some, direct election confers legitimacy upon the president and gives the office much of its political power. In states with a parliamentary system the president is usually elected by the parliament.

This indirect election subordinates the president to the parliament, and also gives the president limited legitimacy and turns most presidential powers into reserve powers that can only be exercised under rare circumstance.

There are exceptions where elected presidents have only ceremonial powers, such as in Ireland. The distinction between a republic and a monarchy is not always clear.

The constitutional monarchies of the former British Empire and Western Europe today have almost all real political power vested in the elected representatives, with the monarchs only holding either theoretical powers, no powers or rarely used reserve powers.

Real legitimacy for political decisions comes from the elected representatives and is derived from the will of the people. While hereditary monarchies remain in place, political power is derived from the people as in a republic.

These states are thus sometimes referred to as crowned republics. Terms such as "liberal republic" are also used to describe all of the modern liberal democracies.

There are also self-proclaimed republics that act similarly to monarchies with absolute power vested in the leader and passed down from father to son.

North Korea and Syria are two notable examples where a son has inherited political control. Neither of these states are officially monarchies.

There is no constitutional requirement that power be passed down within one family, but it has occurred in practice. There are also elective monarchies where ultimate power is vested in a monarch, but the monarch is chosen by some manner of election.

A current example of such a state is Malaysia where the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected every five years by the Conference of Rulers composed of the nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states , and the Vatican City-State , where the pope is selected by cardinal-electors, currently all cardinals under a specific age.

While rare today, elective monarchs were common in the past. The Holy Roman Empire is an important example, where each new emperor was chosen by a group of electors.

Islamic states also rarely employed primogeniture , instead relying on various forms of election to choose a monarch's successor.

The Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth had an elective monarchy, with a wide suffrage of some , nobles. The system, known as the Golden Liberty , had developed as a method for powerful landowners to control the crown.

The proponents of this system looked to classical examples, and the writings of the Italian Renaissance, and called their elective monarchy a rzeczpospolita , based on res publica.

In general being a republic also implies sovereignty as for the state to be ruled by the people it cannot be controlled by a foreign power. There are important exceptions to this, for example, republics in the Soviet Union were member states which had to meet three criteria to be named republics:.

It is sometimes argued that the former Soviet Union was also a supra-national republic, based on the claim that the member states were different nations.

Each republic had its parliament, government, institute of citizenship, constitution, etc. Each republic also had a right of self-determination according to the conclusions of the second session of the AVNOJ and according to the federal constitution.

States of the United States are required, like the federal government, to be republican in form, with final authority resting with the people.

This was required because the states were intended to create and enforce most domestic laws, with the exception of areas delegated to the federal government and prohibited to the states.

The founding fathers of the country intended most domestic laws to be handled by the states. Requiring the states to be a republic in form was seen as protecting the citizens' rights and preventing a state from becoming a dictatorship or monarchy, and reflected unwillingness on the part of the original 13 states all independent republics to unite with other states that were not republics.

Additionally, this requirement ensured that only other republics could join the union. In the example of the United States, the original 13 British colonies became independent states after the American Revolution, each having a republican form of government.

These independent states initially formed a loose confederation called the United States and then later formed the current United States by ratifying the current U.

Constitution , creating a union that was a republic. Any state joining the union later was also required to be a republic. The term republic originated from the writers of the Renaissance as a descriptive term for states that were not monarchies.

These writers, such as Machiavelli, also wrote important prescriptive works describing how such governments should function.

These ideas of how a government and society should be structured is the basis for an ideology known as classical republicanism or civic humanism.

This ideology is based on the Roman Republic and the city states of Ancient Greece and focuses on ideals such as civic virtue , rule of law and mixed government.

This understanding of a republic as a distinct form of government from a liberal democracy is one of the main theses of the Cambridge School of historical analysis.

Pocock who in argued that a series of scholars had expressed a consistent set of republican ideals. Pocock argued that this was an ideology with a history and principles distinct from liberalism.

These subsequent writers have further explored the history of the idea, and also outlined how a modern republic should function. A distinct set of definitions for the word republic evolved in the United States.

This understanding of the term was originally developed by James Madison, and notably employed in Federalist Paper No.

The term republic does not appear in the Declaration of Independence , but does appear in Article IV of the Constitution which "guarantee[s] to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government.

The Supreme Court , in Luther v. Borden , declared that the definition of republic was a " political question " in which it would not intervene.

In two later cases, it did establish a basic definition. In United States v. Cruikshank , the court ruled that the "equal rights of citizens" were inherent to the idea of a republic.

However, the term republic is not synonymous with the republican form. The republican form is defined as one in which the powers of sovereignty are vested in the people and are exercised by the people, either directly, or through representatives chosen by the people, to whom those powers are specially delegated.

Beyond these basic definitions the word republic has a number of other connotations. Paul Adams observes that republic is most often used in the United States as a synonym for state or government, but with more positive connotations than either of those terms.

Traditionally scholars believed this American republicanism was a derivation of the classical liberal ideologies of John Locke and others developed in Europe.

A political philosophy of republicanism that formed during the Renaissance period and initiated by Machiavelli was thought to have had little impact on the founders of the United States.

But a representative democracy, where the right of election is well secured and regulated and the exercise of the legislative, executive and judiciary authorities, is vested in select persons, chosen really and not nominally by the people, will in my opinion be most likely to be happy, regular and durable.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 October This article is about the form of government.

For the political ideology, see Republicanism. For other uses, see Republic disambiguation. Form of government where the head of state is elected.

Monarchy vs. Authoritarian vs. Global vs. Chiefdom Fusion of powers Mixed government. Client state. Presidential republics with an executive presidency separate from the legislature.

Semi-presidential system with both an executive presidency and a separate head of government that leads the rest of the executive, who is appointed by the president and accountable to the legislature.

Computer Republik

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2 Gedanken zu „Computer Republik“

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